Diabetes

Diabetes is a condition where the glucose, or sugar, level in the blood is too high.  The body uses insulin, a hormone, to regulate the levels of glucose in the blood.  When there is not enough insulin in the body, the glucose level in the blood is high.  Over time, too much glucose in the blood can cause serious health problems.  There are three types of diabetes:

  • Type 1 diabetes usually develops in childhood and is where the body does not make insulin.  This is often called insulin dependent diabetes.
  • Type 2 diabetes, which is more common, usually develops in adulthood.  With this type, the body does not make or use insulin well.
  • Gestational Diabetes is the third type of diabetes.  Occurring during a woman’s pregnancy, the mother has difficulty digesting carbohydrates.  Gynecologists usually perform this test on all pregnant women early in the first trimester.
 

The proper management of diabetes can prevent unnecessary complications.  Carolina Collaborative Community Care, Inc. (4C), care managers provide education and self-management support to individuals diagnosed with diabetes.  Care managers may conduct home visits, inpatient hospital visits, and follow-up care to ensure that patients are receiving the best possible health care available.

 

Diabetes Disease Management for Providers and Patients requires following these steps:

  • Adopting American Diabetes Association’s tips for living with diabetes.
  • At least two diabetic care appointments each year.
  • A dilated eye exam every year with the report of the exam in the medical records.
  • Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) test at least twice a year.
  • Annual flu vaccine.
  • Foot exam with monofilament at least annually.
  • Annual Cholesterol (LDL) screening.

 

Did you know?

  • Diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in NC and in the nation.
  • One out of every three people with diabetes is unaware they have it.
  • Adults with diabetes have heart disease death rates 2 to 4 times higher than adults without diabetes.
  • Diabetes is the leading cause of new cases of blindness among adults 20-74.
  • The leading cause of diabetes is obesity.

 

For more information about diabetes, visit the websites below or call 4C!

 

Smoking and Diabetes

 

What Is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a group of diseases in which blood sugar levels are higher than normal. Most of the food a person eats is turned into glucose (a kind of sugar) for the body’s cells to use for energy. The pancreas, an organ near the stomach, makes a hormone called insulin that helps glucose get into the body’s cells. When you have diabetes, your body either doesn't make enough insulin or can't use the insulin very well. Less glucose gets into the cells and instead builds up in the blood.

 

There are different types of diabetes. Type 2 is the most common in adults and accounts for more than 90% of all diabetes cases. Fewer people have type 1 diabetes, which most often develops in children, adolescents, or young adults.

 

How Is Smoking Related to Diabetes?

We now know that smoking causes type 2 diabetes. In fact, smokers are 30–40% more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than nonsmokers. And people with diabetes who smoke are more likely than nonsmokers to have trouble with insulin dosing and with controlling their disease.

 

The more cigarettes you smoke, the higher your risk for type 2 diabetes. No matter what type of diabetes you have, smoking makes your diabetes harder to control.

 

If you have diabetes and you smoke, you are more likely to have serious health problems from diabetes. Smokers with diabetes have higher risks for serious complications, including:

  • Heart and kidney disease
  • Poor blood flow in the legs and feet that can lead to infections, ulcers, and possible amputation (removal of a body part by surgery, such as toes or feet)
  • Retinopathy (an eye disease that can cause blindness)
  • Peripheral neuropathy (damaged nerves to the arms and legs that causes numbness, pain, weakness, and poor coordination)
 
If you are a smoker with diabetes, quitting smoking will benefit your health right away. People with diabetes who quit have better control of their blood sugar levels.  For free help to quit, call 1-800-QUIT NOW (1-800-784-8669) or visit CDC.gov/tips.  Spanish-speakers can call 1-855-DÉJELO-YA(1-855-335-3569) or visit CDC.gov/consejos.
 
How Can Diabetes Be Prevented?
  • Don’t smoke. Smoking increases your chance of having type 2 diabetes.
  • Lose weight if you are overweight or obese.

  • Stay active. Physical activity can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes in adults who are at high risk for the disease.

     

 

How Is Diabetes Treated?

Diabetes treatment and management can include:

  • A healthy diet and physical activity program
  • Weight loss (if overweight or obese)
  • Medicines to control blood sugar by helping the body use insulin better
  • Insulin taken by injections or by using an insulin pump
  • Patient education to address problem-solving and coping skills needed to help manage diabetes and its complications
  • Medicines to control cholesterol and blood pressure
 
 
 
 
 

References

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Basics About Diabetes [last updated 2012 Sept 6; accessed 2014 May 5].
  • National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Diabetes Overview [last updated 2014 Apr 2; accessed 2014 May 5].
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking—50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014 [accessed 2014 May 5].
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. A Report of the Surgeon General. How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: What It Means to You. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2010 [accessed 2014 May 5].
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable Disease. A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2010 [accessed 2014 May 5].
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diabetes Public Health Resource: Prevent Diabetes [last updated 2012 May 14; accessed 2014 May 5].
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diabetes Public Health Resource: 2011 National Diabetes Fact Sheet [last updated 2011 May 20; accessed 2014 May 5].

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910-485-1250

 

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225 Green Street, Suite 1006, Fayetteville, NC 28301